This report was commissioned by the Planning and Development (P&D) Department of the Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It was supported by United Nations Population Fund -UNFPA under the UN Joint Program, “Empowering and Protecting Pakistan’s Women, Girls and Boys” (Aawaz II) funded by Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) – UK Aid. Views expressed in this report are those of the author only and do not reflect the views of the specific entities. The Social Protection and Gender Mainstreaming Unit (SPGM) of the Planning and Development Department led the process. Ms. Fazeelat Jehan – Chief SPGM, ensured that resources were made available and enabled consultations with relevant officials. She guided the process and provided valuable feedback into the development of this document. Without Ms. Jehan’s proactive involvement, it would not have been possible to produce this report. The late Mr. Nauman Afridi – Chief Economist, provided overall guidance and ensured necessary autonomy for authoring the work. The author is grateful to all the professionals from developing partners, civil society organisations and the government for their time and inputs that helped undertake the analysis and the completion of the report. The author would like to offer special thanks to UNFPA for inputs that helped continuously improve the analysis and contributed significantly towards this report being able to achieve a good level of technical soundness.